Solar panel workers

Today, the energy markets in most states in the USA are what are called regulated monopolies, meaning consumers only have one choice for where they get their electricity.

This setup has its roots back in the early 1900s, and the US energy market has operated under regulation since that time, although numerous changes were made along the way.

The energy market became dominated by monopolies because of the massive costs of building infrastructure to deliver energy to customers. Few companies can make such huge investments, and having duplicate infrastructure would be less than ideal.

Electricity generation

For these reasons, the government allowed energy companies to become monopolies. Because monopolies have no competition, however, they can charge whatever they want.

To prevent utilities from increasing prices by too much, the government set up commissions to regulate them and decide the prices that utilities charge.

This system worked well for some time, but it also had drawbacks. Monopolies are less likely to innovate and find ways to reduce prices, and consumers have no choice in where they get their energy. By the 1990s, people began calling for reduced regulation of the energy market.

Today some states have deregulated energy markets, although it is still not the norm. Less than half have deregulated both their gas and electric markets. Some have deregulated just electricity, some have deregulated just natural gas, and they’re deregulated to varying degrees.

The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 helped pave the way for deregulation. It made it easier for companies to enter the market and compete in electricity generation.


Order 888 from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission helped separate power plants from electricity transmission businesses. This meant that private electricity generators could sell their energy wholesale to utilities who would then transmit it to customers.

Deregulated energy markets operate more like the markets for most other goods. They’re open for competition, and customers can choose where they want to buy their energy from.

The utilities that send electricity to customers are like retail stores, which sells goods from numerous suppliers to customers. Generation companies that sell power to utilities are like the suppliers that sell goods to the retail stores.

In a deregulated energy market, customers pay the utility for their electricity but can choose which supplier provides that energy.

Energy deregulation has several benefits. The presence of competition encourages utilities to innovate to win over customers.

Renewable energy

Companies are encouraged to differentiate themselves from the competition by introducing unique programs, improving their customer service and offering energy from alternative sources. It also incentivizes them to lower their prices to beat out the competition.

Deregulation also means more choice for consumers. In markets with competition, customers can purchase green, renewable energy if they like. Even if these choices are more expensive than others, some customers may choose them to reduce their carbon footprints and encourage the growth of the renewable energy industry.

So, what would a future with completely deregulated energy markets look like? It’s difficult to say precisely what would happen in this scenario, and this uncertainty has slowed the transition to full deregulation.

On the one hand, deregulation may result in a future in which utilities serve mainly as transmission and distribution companies.

Private companies would handle generation and sell their energy wholesale to utilities. The markets would likely have more renewable energy and other non-traditional energy sources. Consumers may also enjoy lower prices brought about by competition…

Continue Reading

This article was originally written by Emily Folk and published on
Energy Pages is an online trade publication and business directory for the retail energy industry. We publish editorials, resources, case studies, practical information and industry news. Our content is about and for industry leaders, innovators, investors and influencers.

Your Opinion Matters

Have Something To Say About This Story?

Sign Up for the Energy Pages Digest

Our weekly must-see brief

You May Also Like

The Value and Opportunities That Solar Energy Brings to the Retail Energy Market

Despite the bad rap that certain aspects of solar power, such as net metering and fixed costs, have received, the reality is that solar power presents many valuable opportunities for the retail energy industry

Vistra Energy to Acquire Crius Energy

A move that will make Vistra the leading residential electricity provider in the nation

Deloitte Report Highlights Need for Innovation in Retail Energy

A new report from Deloitte, a global professional services and consulting company, has highlighted the need for broad innovation in the retail energy space.

Japanese Retail Energy Market Presents Opportunities for U.S. Suppliers

Upcoming webinar looks at the country’s vibrant market and advantages for U.S. businesses